On January 27th, 1967,the crew of Apollo 1 was undergoing a simulated countdown when an electrical fire started within the spacecraft. The hatch was bolted tightly onto the capsule. Escape was impossible and the blaze quickly grew in a pure oxygen atmosphere. Astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee died on the pad.
On January 28th, 1986, the space shuttle Challenger was destroyed was destroyed 73 seconds after lift off for the STS-51L mission. Cold weather in the days before launch had weakened the rubber o-rings sealing sections of the solid rocket boosters. Flames escaped and penetrated the external fuel tank, igniting an explosion of liquid hydrogen and oxygen that disintegrated the orbiter vehicle. The crew was not killed in the explosion—forensic investigation revealed that pilot Michael Smith’s emergency oxygen supply had been activated, and consumed for two and a half minutes: the amount of time between the break-up to when the remains of Challenger landed in the Atlantic Ocean.
On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia disintegrated during re-entry over the southern United States after sixteen days in orbit. During launch, a piece of cryogenic insulation foam fell from the external fuel tank and struck the left wing of the orbiter, damaging the thermal protection system. As Columbia streaked across the southern sky, atmospheric gases heated by its hypersonic flight entered the wing and melted critical structural members. Ground observers in Texas could see the shuttle breaking apart over their heads. Rapid cabin depressurization incapacitated the crew.
This is the worst week in the history of American spaceflight. These three disasters are not the only dark spots on that record, by they are by far the worst. We remember them, and vow not to repeat the mistakes that led to their deaths.
After Apollo 1, Flight Director Gene Kranz gave the following address to his mission controllers:
Spaceflight will never tolerate carelessness, incapacity, and neglect. Somewhere, somehow, we screwed up. It could have been in design, build, or test. Whatever it was, we should have caught it.
We were too gung ho about the schedule and we locked out all of the problems we saw each day in our work. Every element of the program was in trouble and so were we. The simulators were not working, Mission Control was behind in virtually every area, and the flight and test procedures changed daily. Nothing we did had any shelf life. Not one of us stood up and said, “Dammit, stop!”
I don’t know what Thompson’s committee will find as the cause, but I know what I find. We are the cause! We were not ready! We did not do our job. We were rolling the dice, hoping that things would come together by launch day, when in our hearts we knew it would take a miracle. We were pushing the schedule and betting that the Cape would slip before we did.
From this day forward, Flight Control will be known by two words: “Tough and Competent.” Tough means we are forever accountable for what we do or what we fail to do. We will never again compromise our responsibilities. Every time we walk into Mission Control we will know what we stand for.
Competent means we will never take anything for granted. We will never be found short in our knowledge and in our skills. Mission Control will be perfect.
When you leave this meeting today you will go to your office and the first thing you will do there is to write “Tough and Competent” on your blackboards. It will never be erased. Each day when you enter the room these words will remind you of the price paid by Grissom, White, and Chaffee.
Gene Kranz is right. Tough competence is what those of us in the space business must strive to be, every day, for lives are on the line, and the future of manned exploration of the cosmos is at stake.
These seventeen are not the only space travelers to die in the line of their work, and undoubtedly more astronauts and cosmonauts will perish in our conquest of the universe. That is no excuse for sloppiness. The Apollo 1 fire could have been prevented. STS-51L should not have launched. STS-107 could have been saved on-orbit. It’s the job of engineers, technicians, flight controllers, and fellow astronauts to see accidents before they occur and prevent them from happening.